CELTA Language Analysis – Grammar

CELTA Language Analysis – Grammar

Teaching grammar is one of the most challenging tasks teachers face. Therefore, it is of great importance to prepare a language analysis sheet while covering grammar topics to be well-prepared in terms of concept checking questions and anticipated problems to maximize the student’s involvement in the process. It would be easier for the teacher to elicit the meaning and form from the students and needless to say that personalized examples written before the lesson will smoothen the explanation process and save time for controlled and freer practice. 

Let’s have a look at the language analysis of grammar suggested at CELTA course. 

During the course teachers learn to introduce target language in the following order:

Meaning, Form, Pronunciation, Appropriacy

For both grammar and vocabulary items, the analysis has the following plan:

1) Analysis of meaning 

2) Describing how the meaning is conveyed

3) Checking students understanding

4) Highlighting the form

5) Analysis of phonological features of the target language

Let’s look at the points teachers should think of before the lesson.

Step 1 – The Form

Teachers should answer the following questions:

  1. What is the Target Language (write the target sentence/s from the lesson here)?

For example,

  1. I can speak about it easily. 
  2. I could eat vegetables. 
  3. I was able to get used to my diet.
  4. I managed to become a strong person.
  5. I succeeded in following my diet list.
  6. I’ll be able to overcome every difficulty.

2. What content conveying meaning will be used (state the context and how you will convey meaning)?

Personalized story.

Three years ago I had a very difficult period in my life. I was having serious health problems. I was a little overweight. I was on a special diet.My doctor was very strict to me. I was having medical procedures every day from 9-3 o’clock. I was able to get used to my new diet very slowly. Then I tried hard and managed to do everything. I succeeded in following my diet list. At that time I could eat only vegetables. I was able to win my disease. Now, I can speak  about it easily and I am sure I’ll be able to overcome every difficulty in the future.  With the help of this experience I managed to become a very strong person.

3. How the form will be presented on the whiteboard or worksheet?

  1. Question:               can+ S+ v (base) ?

  Negative                S+can’t+ v (base)

2. Question                  could+S+ v (base)

Negative             S +couldn’t+ v (base)

  1.   Question                              was/were + S+ able to +v (base)

 Negative                           S+ wasn’t/weren’t+ able to +v (base)

4. Question                                   Did +S + manage + to +v (base)

Negative                                           S+ didn’t+ manage + to + v (base)

  1. Question                      Did +S+ succeed+ in + v ing

 Negative                      S+ didn’t+ succeed + in + v ing

  1. Question                       will +S+ be able to +v (base) 

Negative                          S+ will not/ won’t+ be able to +v (base) (3 mins)

Step 2 – Meaning/Concept.

Try to state this in student-friendly language.

They speak about something we are able to do now, things they did well in the past, and future predictions of what we will do.

Teachers should also plan what CCQs, Timelines and other techniques they are going to use to check meaning.

  1. I can speak about it easily.  CCQ. None
  2. By the end of the 2ndt month I could speak a little bit Portuguese 

CCQ. Is it something I was doing in the past?

Did I do it only once? (no)

Did I do it later as well? (yes) 

  1. I was able to get used to my diet.
  2. I managed to become a strong person. CCQ. Did I do it well? (yes)

Am I happy with the result now? (yes)

Did I do it many times or only at that time? (at that time)

  1. I succeeded in following my diet list.
  2. I’ll be able to overcome every difficulty.

Is it something I can do in the future? (yes)

Step 3 – Pronunciation features

Teachers should write down a phonemic script, weak forms, contractions, stress, intonation. 

I can speak about it easily.  

Ai kən spi:k ə’bau it  ‘iː.zəli

I  could speak a little bit Portuguese

Ai kəd spi:k ə ‘litl bit ˌpɔː.tʃəˈɡiːz

I was able to get used to my diet.

Ai wəz eibl tə get justə mai ‘daiət

I managed to become a strong person

Ai ‘mæn.ɪdʒtə bɪˈkʌm ə strɑːŋ ‘pɜː.sən

I succeeded in following my diet list.

Ai sək’si:diŋ ˈfɒl.əʊiŋ mai ‘daiət list.

I’ll be able to overcome every difficulty.

Ail beible  təʊ.vəˈkʌm ‘evri ‘dɪf.ɪ.kəl.ti

Step 4 – Appropriacy: (i.e. formal, informal or neutral)

  1. Neutral
  2. Neutral
  3. Neutral
  4. Neutral
  5. Formal
  6. Neutral

Step 5 – Anticipated problems students will have with the target language (MPFA), and solutions

Teachers should try to predict possible problems and plan how they can solve them.

This plan will help to get ready for any Grammar lesson better. Hope you find it useful

Лиза Мардоян

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